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Controversy Over the Old Beijing City Development

George IMPA2009

Most of the historical urban structures, districts, and monuments one sees in contemporary Beijing dates back to the Ming Dynasty (1368 A.D. to 1644 A.D.). It is designed in accordance with principles developed over centuries for the construction of an ideal capital city. Beijing is one of the oldest centrally planned cities in the world. In addition to its urban coherence, the historic Beijing is widely admired for its ability to integrate monumental spatial experiences befitting of a capital, and a respect for the human scale, found in its delicately scaled residential district adjacent to the Imperial City.

DRM in Pakistan

Matthew Myers MID2010

On October 8th, 2005, a magnitude 7.6 earthquake shook the Pakistan/India border. Tremors could be felt all the way from Kabul to New Delhi. The Pakistan-administered Jammu and Kashmir regions, AJK, suffered the most damage from the earthquake. Earthquakes in the Himalayas are not uncommon since India¡¯s tectonic plate is shifting north at a steady pace of five centimeters per year. However, although seismic activity is common in the region due to the collision of the Indian tectonic plate with the Iranian and Afghan micro-plates, Pakistan had not experienced an earthquake of equivalent strength in nearly 100 years. Unfortunately, scientists expect more powerful earthquakes to hit the Pakistan region in the future as the plates move closer together.

30 Years of Shenzhen¡¯s Reform

Ren Yong SPPM student

In just three decades, Shenzhen developing from a small fishing village into a modern city, has created an economic miracle. After surveying Shenzhen¡¯s 30 years, from the establishment of Shenzhen Special Economic Zone to fighting for legislative power, and then to the integration of Shenzhen, we can see a history of continuous reform and development. In1978, the CCP decided to shift the focus of the country to economic construction, and to implement the ¡°reform and opening up¡± policy. In 1980, the first Special Economic Zone of China was established in Shenzhen, which became the experimental field of reform and opening up. Shenzhen tried bravely and created numerous ¡°No.1¡±. Shenzhen implemented a series of special policies to attract foreign investment and expand exports. Despite suffering from doubt, Shenzhen persisted in reform in support of the central authorities. However, along with the deepening of reform, the importance of the rule of law had become increasingly prominent. Shenzhen began to fight for independent legislative power. After many twists and turns, in 1992, Shenzhen Special Zone finally won the independent legislative power. From then on, Shenzhen had used legislation to protect reform, to promote reform. With the further development of Shenzhen, the two systems inside and outside of Shenzhen Special Zone had become an obstacle to the development of Shenzhen City. Therefore, in 2010, Shenzhen Special Economic Zone expanded to the whole city. With the reform and opening up is extended gradually from the coast to the mainland, Shenzhen become not special any more, and Shenzhen is facing new challenges. Shenzhen has decided to deepen reform further and create its own advantage. Neither Shenzhen's reform nor Shenzhen¡¯s development will stop.

30 Years of Shenzhen¡¯s Reform

Ren Yong SPPM student

Developing from a fishing village in the border area of Southern China, hard to find on a map, is a great modern city with economic prosperity. How long did it take? The answer for Shenzhen is 30 years.

The Prague Spring

DOUZAN Guy-Serge Semionov

Following the end of World War II, the Cold War divided the world into two ideological blocs; the Western Bloc and the Eastern Bloc, which were led by the United States of America (USA) and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), respectively. In the 1960¡¯s, Czechoslovakia (which was a member of the Eastern Bloc) adopted economic reforms in the wake of an economic downturn, which later inspired a political reform movement as well, referred to as the Prague Spring. Given its alignment with the Eastern Bloc, Czechoslovakia¡¯s efforts at political liberalization strained relations with the Soviet Union, ultimately resulting in the Soviet-led invasion of Czechoslovakia in August 1968.

Economically Feasible Renewable Energy ?A case study: J...

Tyler C. Shelden

The National Energy Bureau (NEB) of China aims to establish a competitive renewable-energy industrial system by 2015, comprising of hydro, solar, wind, bio-mass, solar concentrated and geothermal powers. To ensure that such non-fossil energy sources can generate the intended amount of 480 million tonnes equivalent standard coal annually, China has set various development targets, such as 100GW for installed wind capacity by 2015. 9 These objectives are part of a larger plan by the NEB, the National Development and Reform Commission (NDRC), and the central government to ensure that the nation will reform and innovate a modern system of secure and affordable energy. The principle objective of the plan is to establish an energy system that enables renewable energies to reach competitive prices with conventional energy sources, thus easing the economic transition to a cleaner economy and mitigating climate change. While this objective is simple enough, the road China must travel to reach this goal is one that requires capacity building, institutional outreach on an international level, continuous technological improvement, and other innovations not yet foreseeable. Fortunately this is not a road China must walk alone, at times being spurred by competitive cooperation from nations such as the US and Germany, other times guided by the development expertise of the World Bank. Despite the ambiguities ahead, it is certain that the road China takes to an economically competitive and secure renewable energy system will be the prototype for developed and developing nations around the world.

Chongqing Municipality

YU Miao SPPM student

Chongqing is one of the largest cities in China, with a history spanning more than 3,000 years. It is the largest economic center in the Southwest region, reaching into the upper reaches of the Yangtze River and serving as a vital transport hub. In 1891, it was designated as a trading port before being formally established as a city in 1929. In the early days of the PRC, it served as the site for the CPC Central Committee¡¯s Southwest Bureau and the Southwest Military and Political Committee for the Central Municipality. In 1954, it was re-established as a Municipality belonging to the Sichuan Province. In 1983, the State Council designated Chongqing to be a pilot city for the first round of economic reforms. It was given authority for economic management at the provincial level and was allowed to open up international trading ports. Chongqing Municipality plays a key role in the economic development and opening up of the Southwest region and the Yangtze River region. This case will describe the process with which Chongqing became a municipality.

The Path to Achieving Energy Independence

Tyler C. Shelden

The role of state sponsorship in encouraging deployment of technologies created in research and development seems clear in theory but becomes fret with tension when taken into policy. In 2009, the Obama administration passed the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act and authorized a series of loan guarantees to sponsor renewable startups. This was a research based policy choice to assist fledgling industries in their journey across the funding "valley of death" that exists between laboratory application and demonstrable deployment. Several of these fifty plus ventures have subsequently filed for bankruptcy or sold their assets overseas. This paper will analyze two of these politically selected projects, explain their respective developing technologies, chart their rise and demise, and focus on determining what level of governmental policy sponsorship should be enacted to ensure that the appropriation of tax dollars returns significant national public value.

The Role is in ¡®Black Saturday¡¯ Bushfires?

Jenny TANG MID2010

Australia is a large and sparsely populated with seasonal bushfires during its hot, dry summer (December to February), often exacerbated by large areas populated by densely vegetated bushlands. Since records began, there were major bushfires in every state and territory in the country. As a consequence, all three levels of government (federal, state, local) as well as emergency services like the Country Fire Authority (CFA) and State Emergency Services (SES), which is made up of volunteers, to help plan, prepare and carry out appropriate and effective responses which saves lives and properties each summer, and the Department of Sustainability and Environment, DSE.

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